Neuropathy is defined as nerve entrapment and a problem in nerve. It is related to the nervous system problem. In which stimulation of signals and blood supply to nerve stopped and it cause problems inpatient. The Nervous system is a complex system consists of neurons, nerves, and neurotransmitters. Difficulties in these structures cause neurological problems. Neuropathy has several types that depend on the region where its effects are prominent. It is defined as a problem or entrapment of one or more nerves in our body and it results in symptoms of nerve dysfunction. Neuropathy starts from the hand and moves to other parts in the body. A very common type of neuropathy is peripheral neuropathy (PPN) the facts reveal that approximately 2.4 % in fetal and 8 % of patients develop it with rising in age. (1)

Nervous system

Neuropathy is the problem of the peripheral nervous system it consists of networks of motor tracks like nerves. The Nervous system of human consist of two main types of the central and peripheral nervous system. Destruction of neuron in nerves cause neuropathy in this article we will discuss peripheral neuropathy.

Peripheral neuropathy is recognized from its name means to extend to the limb or peripheries of the body. It is further classified into three types according to the destruction of nerve mono, and polyneuropathy. Before moving forward, we need to mention different types of nervous systems.

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Types: The Nervous system is divided into three types.

  • Central nervous system
  • Peripheral nervous systems
  • Autonomic nervous system

Central nervous system: it is the basic control center of the brain which consists of different types of structures. Which performs all the functions related to our daily life activities. Include listening, speaking, sleeping, thinking, vomiting, and sleep cycle.

Peripheral: the peripheral nervous system consists of nerve structure or known as distribution task. Nerves include peripheral nervous systems are 2 sensory and motor nerves. Sensory nerves are responsible for the transmission of a message to the brain and motor nerves are responsible for the transmission of message for tasks to the body parts muscles etc.

What patient feel: in peripheral neuropathy patient feel different types of symptoms like

  • Sensory it causes: Stoking glove (it means symptoms in feet and hands it is due to the reason that it usually affects the longest nerve first which is in toes and fingertips), distal loss of pain and temperature, distal loss of vibration and touch
  • Motor: Distal muscle weakness symptoms in extensor more than the flexors. Distal loss of reflexes and distal loss of pressure and atrophy of extensors and flexor muscles.
  • Autonomic: Orthostasis, importance in males, gastroparesis and skin hair changes
  • Numbness: Loss of sensation in the peripheries due to destruction of nerve. As there is damaged nerve so blood supply of muscle is also entrapped it cause numbness.
  • Tingling like sensation
  • Sharp itching pain in the part
  • Redness (2)
  • Loss of movement

What causes neuropathy

  • Diabetes: it is a major cause of neuropathy. In diabetes loss nerve sensations so muscle weakness will
  • Trauma: It includes fracture and any traumatic injuries which cause entrapment of nerve so it may cause peripheral
  • Viral infections may also cause peripheral
  • Tumors are also a major cause of peripheral
  • Rheumatoid and osteoarthritis and other autoimmune diseases cause peripheral neuropathy.
  • Chemical substances may also cause peripheral
  • The Use of alcohol may cause peripheral
  • People with alternative protein in blood reason
  • Cancer may also cause it.
  • Vitamins shortage may also reason peripheral
  • HIV virus in which the immune system of the body becomes
  • Chronic kidney diseases are also one of the major
  • Lymphoma and liver

People at more risk:

  • Elderly patients are most vulnerable to
  • Diabetic patients are also at more
  • Patients with a family history are at more
  • Patients with neurological disorders are also at more

Diagnosis

  • Spinal fluid (albuminocytologicall dissociation)
  • EMG (confirm the clinical diagnosis, nonuniform demyelination with conduction block due to focal demyelination)
  • NCS (nerve conduction study tells us about the nerve damage or entrapment)

Treatment: when admitted to the hospital regularly check the respiratory response of the patient. There are two main types of treatments introduced like medication and non-medicated.

Medicated treatments

  • Antidepressants: Class of medicine that is used for the treatment of mental health illnesses like seizures and epilepsy. Other classes like opioids may also help in getting relief from this problem.
  • Chemotherapy also used in the treatment of neuropathy.
  • Culture techniques in which doctor cut part of the skin from body and place at other part is also used in this treatment.
  • NSAIDs; these drugs are used for the treatment of neuropathy and symptoms of pain like sensations. Some creams also prescribed by the doctor for its which helps in increasing the circulation of the body.

Therapeutically non medicated treatments

In this stimulation from other mean is provided to the muscle, heat, and compression techniques are preferable in this. The treatment may also depend on the entrapment of nerves like:

  • Ulnar nerve palsy: entrapment of ulnar nerve at the It causes pain and tingling like sensation at the wrist.
  • Facial nerve palsy; it includes entrapment of facial nerve and its therapeutic treatment is different from others.
  • Non medicated treatment also includes covering the part with a bandage.
  • Use of heat and cold pads.
  • Creams indicated for massage therapy.

How can we prevent it?

Its prevention includes the following ways. Make healthy lifestyle (for example with Ayurveda): it is necessary to maintain a healthy and hygienic lifestyle and consumption of vitamins b-6 and 12 are very useful for the prevention of many diseases it also makes the strong immune system in our body and helps in improving bone growth and density of bones.

Exercise regularly (for example yoga); it is the best way to avoid many diseases like heart disease, and for diabetic patients, it is necessary every day in neuropathy people usually walk for approximately thirty minutes to one hour.

Avoid the risk of nerve entrapment: avoid those activities which can cause pressure on the nerves it contains different postures and use of drugs, cigarette, and alcohol consumption.

References:

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1122393/
  2. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health
  3. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
  4. https://www.webmd.com/brain/understanding-peripheral-neuropathy-basics